Learn the cardinal signs of Parkinson Disease.

The four characteristic signs and symptoms of Parkinson Disease can be remembered with the mnemonic TRAP.

  • Tremor – Most, but not all, Parkinsons patients develop a unilateral resting tremor early in the disease course.
  • Rigidity – The hallmark of Parkinsons is increased tone. The commonly described ‘cogwheeling’ comes from the combination of tremor with increased tone.
  • Akinesia – Slowed movements (bradykinesia) and freezing gait (akinesia) are common.
  • Postural Instability – Falls and balance difficulty are common, and falling backwards is common in Parkinson disease. Many patient will have a stooped posture as well.
Admiral Ackbar’s advice on recalling the symptoms of Parkinson Disease.